In the US population, the NKF guidelines also identified older Americans, African-Americans, Hispanics, Asians and Pacific Islanders as being at increased risk for chronic renal disease. The NKF recommended three routine tests be used for kidney disease screening, namely:
- Blood test for creatinine
- Urine test for protein and
- Measurement of blood pressure
The level of creatinine in the blood is then used to estimate the glomerular filtration rate, or GFR. The GRF and checking for persistent protein in the urine (proteinuria) are believed to be the best way to diagnose early kidney damage. The level of GFR and persistent proteinuria can be estimated accurately from blood and urine tests collected during a routine office visit.